By the 1870s all the towns were in place in the area of the KellyGang with a structure of local government, police stations, doctors, shops, blacksmiths, churches and most of the facilities that we have come to expect. Most of the larger towns also had a local newspaper.
The squatters had managed to select key areas of their runs and some of the selectors had made some success of farming.
While deep lead mining was still carried on in places like Beechworth and Chiltern, most of the alluvial mining areas were in decline. The Chinese were working over the old diggings at places like Sebastopol.
Government had become a major employer. The police, railways, and telegraph were key players in the story of the KellyGang. The customs service and post office were also significant employers.
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